Depending on the causative agent, skin infections are divided into viral, fungal and bacterial, which are characterised by different clinical pictures and their accompanying symptoms and discomforts. Skin infections can result in lasting health complications and require a comprehensive treatment programme and periodic check-ups and testing.

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Viral infections

The most common viral infections are Herpes simplex type 1 and Herpes simplex type 2. Type 1 is characterised by unpleasant itchy mouth blisters. It usually appears when the immune system is weakened and in periods of stress. Type 2 affects genitals and is transmitted sexually. Infection with type 1 mostly happens in childhood and with type 2 during puberty. After infection, the virus remains latent for life in the ganglia of the spinal cord. It is triggered by stress, trauma, menstruation, sunlight or diseases.

The varicella-zoster virus causes diseases known as varicella and herpes zoster. Varicella is a manifestation of primary infection with the virus in childhood and is characterised by a generalised vesicular exanthema. Herpes zoster appears as a result of reactivation of the virus, which persists in the spinal ganglia after the primary infection has passed. It appears in older people and causes fever, the appearance of individual merging vesicles accompanied by itchiness and pain.

Fungal infections

Fungal infections are very common, affecting the skin’s surface layers and nails. They are most commonly caused by dermatophytes and Candida. They are spread indirectly from person to person when using common bathrooms, swimming pools, towels and clothes, walking barefoot in public places, as well as by animals. Feet fungi are one of the most common infections, with the main clinical forms: intertriginous form between the 3rd and 4th toe and between the 4th and 5th toe of one or both feet, with intense itchiness observed, especially when feet are warm and sweaty, Hyperkeratotic skin reddening and flakiness in the area of the heels and the arch of the foot, and dyshidrotic form formation of blisters filled with liquid and a characteristic intense itch. Onychomycosis is a fungal infection, that affects the nails of feet or hands. The infection starts from the free nail edge, and the nail gradual thickens. The earlier patients consult with a dermatologist, the easier it will be to bring the disease under control. In inguinal epidermophytosis, one or several red spots appear in the inner part of the thighs. As they gradually grow, their centre fades, with the edge slightly raised, red and flaky. The infection is accompanied by intense itchiness, especially when the area is warm. Dermatomycosis is characterised by single round or oval spots that increase their size at varying rates. It is typical for the lesions to have an active edge and a fading centre. The causative agent of superficial candidiasis is part of the body’s normal flora. The factors predisposing the development of candidiasis are diabetes, tumours, HIV infection, broad-spectrum antibiotics or corticosteroids. It affects the skin and mucous membranes of the mouth and vagin. Candida albicans is the most common causative agent, but it can also be caused by C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, etc.

Bacterial infections

Disturbing the balance of skin microbiome results in the development of skin infections (pyoderma). They include staphylococcal and streptococcal infections, as well as infections caused by other bacteria, most often gram-negative. Infection development factors include: injuries preceding skin disease, poor hygiene, immune system disorders, diabetes, etc.

Some bacterial skin infections resolve spontaneously, but most of them are persistent and, if left untreated, can have serious consequences. Infectious agents are not only located on the surface of the skin. They also penetrate into hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands. Some skin areas, such as the groin, axillary creases and folds between the toes, have a higher temperature and humidity. These areas are inhabited by micro-organisms that prefer damp conditions, such as gram-negative bacteria, S. аureus and Corynebacter. Other areas, characterised by a high density of sebaceous glands, are inhabited by lipophilic micro-organisms, such as Propionibacterium and Malassezia.

Staphylococcal infections of hair follicles: ostiofolliculitis or superficial folliculitis that only affects the hair follicle’s orifice , deep folliculitis that involves the entire hair follicle, furuncle where the inflammation spreads subcutaneously and a compact, painful, red nodule appears (1-2 cm diameter), and carbuncle where a number of furuncles merge into a painful inflammatory mass that produces pus and the patient is in a poor general condition with fever, chills and pain.

Impetigo is one of the most common streptococcal infections that affects the surface of the skin and predominantly occurs in children. However, erysipelas is a serious streptococcal infection that reaches the lower dermis and hypodermis, and if left without proper treatment, it can lead to serious complications.

DURATION

The duration of each personalised comprehensive programme is determined by the type of treatment.

SUITABLE AGE

16+
Under 18s can only be treated with parental consent.

APPLICATION AREAS

Face
Body
Scalp

Methods

  • Clinical studies
  • Medicinal treatment
  • Machine-assisted diagnostic assessments
  • Machine-assisted procedures

Recovery period

  • 6-18 months

Contradictions

  • The infection and the patient’s general condition must be precisely diagnosed to determine contraindications.

Administration

The period of treatment of the relevant infection is strongly personalised. There must be strict compliance with the dermatologist’s recommendations on use of medication and cosmetics, and order of procedures. Improvement becomes visible within 18 months, but whether the infection has been brought under control or not, treatment should continue for another 2 years.

Frequently asked questions:

The dermatologist determines where the filler should be inserted, taking into account the patient’s anatomical features. The procedure lasts around 20-30 minutes.

The filler is spread evenly in the cheekbone area, with the results visible immediately.

No recovery period is required for this procedure. Redness or swelling may appear at the injection site, but the discomfort passes quickly (a few hours to a few days).

The effect is visible immediately and lasts around a year.

The procedure can be repeated again after the filler’s full or partial degradation.

  • Hypersensitivity to various types of fillers;
  • Skin injury at the injection site.